网页发布于：Tue, 2017-03-21 12:07
一般而言定义明确的地区的首写词要大写，以下是The Economist Style Guide 的建议：
“Use upper case for definite geographical places, regions, areas and countries, and for vague but recognised political or geographical areas…lower case for east, west, north, south except when part of a name.”
（大写用于明确的地理学位置、地区、区域、国家以及模糊但是被认可的行政或地理区域east, west, north, south 等用小写，但当他们是名称一部分的时候除外。）
这条通用法则也适用于地球表面的地带，如North Temperate Zone, the Equator 等。
- 通常而言，指南针上的方位（如north, southeast 等）和形容词（如western, central, upper, lower 等）不需要大写
- 专有名词中的一般地理学名词需要首字母大写，如Atlantic Ocean, Mt. Muztagata 等
- 首字母大写的地理学名词之后的一般术语不需要大写，如Yangtze River valley
- 名词复数要小写，如Gobi and Taklamakan deserts
- “the”只有在其为正式地名一部分的时候才大写，如The Bahamas, the Netherlands
关于某个地名如果你不清楚正确的大写方法，你可以在Google Scholar 上搜索一下(http://scholar.google.com/)。多数人的意见不见得就是正确的，但是可以给你一些关于正确大写的线索。请记住，你写作的目的是要清楚地表述你的科研成果。注意正确的大写不仅仅是为了遵守某些专断的规则，你的论文需要正确运用大写的原因是，给读者一个关于你的采集地的更精确的概念，特别是当他们还不熟悉你的研究领域的时候。
Upper case （大写）
- East Asia
- South-East Asia
- Central Asia
- Central America
- North Korea
- South Africa
- the North Atlantic
- the Middle East
- The Arctic
- The Hague
- The Gambia
- central Europe
- western China
- southern Beijing
- western Mongolia
- eastern Africa
- northern North Korea
- the central Gobi
- the lower Yangtze River
- the Philippines
购买The Columbia Gazetteer of the World (http://www.columbiagazetteer.org/，此链接可免费试用)，或者Merriam-Webster’s Geographical Dictionary 可能会对你有所帮助。
参考书目：The Economist Style Guide, Capitalization - Places
Council of Science Editors, Style Manual Committee. Scientific Style and format: the CSE manual for authors, editors, and publishers, 7th ed. Reston (VA): The Council; 2006. Section 9.7.3, Pg. 120
affect = A, effect = B, capability = C, capacity = D, continually = E, continuous = F, adverse = G, aversion = H
1. The _______ conditions caused by the hurricane prevented the plane from taking off.
2. Despite the skill of its employees, the small factory did not have the ________ to produce large amounts of goods.
3. The _________ noise of the waves crashing on the beach was very relaxing.
4. Luckily, the medicine did not adversely ______ the patient.
5. Because he had not received any training, John did not have the __________ to repair the complicated machinery.
6. Many scientists believe that global warming is the ______ of greenhouse-gas emissions.
7. Because of she is a vegetarian, Susan had an ________ to the idea of going to the Korean Barbeque restaurant.
8. The website is ___________ updated.
capability: a certain ability, the quality of being capable, a potential aptitude.
capacity: the ability to contain; the volume or amount that fits in a certain container.
complement: a worthy addition (n.)
(e.g., The girl’s pink cheeks were the perfect complement to her dark eyes.)
compliment: to praise (v.); a piece of praise (n.)
(e.g., The girl accepted the compliment with a shy blush.)
This is often the result of a simple typing error.
trial: a tryout or experiment to test quality, value, or usefulness of something (e.g., clinical trial). It also refers to the number of repetitions of an experiment.
trail: a marked or established path or route, or a course followed or to be followed (e.g., mountain trail).
intercellular: located between cells
intracellular: occurring or situated within a cell or cells (e.g., intracellular fluid).
principal (adjective): chief, main, leading, most important.
principal (noun): the most important person or group of people ("After much debate, the two principals reached an agreement"); the head of a school (the principal person in the administration); borrowed money (as distinct from interest).
principle (always a noun): a rule, standard, law, guideline, or doctrine.
adverse: bad, opposed
(e.g., Benjamin ate zongzi every day for lunch and suffered no adverse effects.)
averse: feeling unwilling; experiencing distaste
(e.g., Benjamin’s mother was averse to the idea of an all-zongzi lunch.)
affect (verb): “to influence”
(e.g., Xiao Wang’s wild partying on Thursday night affected his performance on the history test.)
effect (noun): “result”
(e.g., Xiao Wang’s wild partying on Thursday night had a terrible effect on his performance on the history test.)
continual: repeatedly (e.g., For two weeks, the travelers continually went on trips to the Great Wall.)
continuous: without interruption (e.g., The flow of water is continuous.)
criterion: singular form (e.g., one criterion)
criteria: plural form (e.g., some criteria)
ensure: “to make sure or certain”
insure: “to guarantee with insurance against risk or loss of life”
*However, in American English, “insure” can be used for both of these meanings.
参考答案: 1) G 2) D 3)F 4) A 5) C 6) B 7) H 8) E