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科学写作:摘要撰写及常见错误(二)

科学写作:摘要撰写及常见错误(二)

The “Code” of Writing Scientific Abstracts

科技文章摘要写作“代码

Think of each sentence as representing one of the following “codes” based on its function: 

根据功能,每个句子分别代表以下“代码”:

B = Background information 背景信息

P = Principal activity/purpose/scope/aims of study 主要活动/目的/范围/研究目标

M = Information about methodology 方法

F = Main findings/results 重要发现/结果

C = Main implications/conclusions of the work 重要意义/研究结论

S = Suggestions/recommendations 提示/建议

*Tip: B, P, M, F, China Science!

Adapted from Weissburg and Buker (1994)


Exercise: Analysis of Abstract - Biology

练习:分析摘要 - 生物学

Stimulus-induced oscillations in plant cell cytosolic free calcium. Ca2+ is implicated as a second messenger in the response of stomata to a range of stimuli. [B1-well focused intro to research topic] However, the mechanism by which stimulus-induced increases in guard cell cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+] are transduced into different physiological responses remains to be explained. [B2-gap in understanding] Oscillations in [Ca2+] may provide one way in which this can occur. [B3-hypothesis] We used photometric and imaging techniques to examine this hypothesis in guard cells of Commelina communis. [P, M1-NB active rather passive]. External Ca2+ ([Ca2+]e), which causes an increase in [Ca2+], was used as a closing stimulus. [M2] The total increase in [Ca2+] was directly related to the concentration of [Ca2+]e, both of which correlated closely with the degree of stomatal closure. [F1] Increases were oscillatory in nature, with the pattern of thdegree the oscillations being dependent on the concentration of [Ca2+]e. [F2] At 0.1 mM, [Ca2+]e induced symmetrical oscillations. In contrast, 1.0 mM [Ca2+]e induced asymmetric oscillations. [F3] Oscillations were stimulus-dependent and modulated by changing [Ca2+]e. [F4] Experiments using Ca2+ channel blockers and Mn2+-quenching studies suggested a role for Ca2+ influx during the oscillatory behavior without excluding the possible involvement of Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. [C1] These data suggest a mechanism for encoding the information required to distinguish between a number of different Ca2+-mobilizing stimuli in guard cells, using stimulus-specific patterns of oscillations in [Ca2+]. [C, S-broader/possible focus for further research]